Friday, 27 March 2015

Tomorrow's industry leaders are trained at 2015 PILI

Tomorrow's industry leaders are trained at 2015 PI...

  The Potato Industry Leadership Institute (PILI) Class of 2015 included twenty-seven potato grow...

Campaign “Cook Your Own Potatoes”, supported by Olympic athlete

Campaign “Cook Your Own Potatoes”, supported by Ol...

Potato Council has added an exciting new dimension to its successful ‘Cook Your Own Potatoes’ projec...

Horsch won "Best new product or innovation" category at LAMMA’15 Award

Horsch won Best new product or innovation catego...

The equipment manufacturer Horsch UK won the “Best New Product or Innovation” at LAMMA’15, the annua...

H.J. Heinz Company and Kraft Foods Group to form the Kraft Heinz Company

H.J. Heinz Company and Kraft Foods Group to form the Kr...

H.J. Heinz Company and Kraft Foods Group, Inc. announced they have entered into a definitive merger agr...

Consumer needs drive potato innovation strategy

Consumer needs drive potato innovation strategy

  Head of Potato Council R D Dr Mike Storey discusses Potato Council’s new Research and Innovation Str...

The US FDA gave green light to six varieties of GMO potatoes

The US FDA gave green light to six varieties of GMO pot...

  The U.S. Food and Drug Administration completed its evaluation for six varieties of potatoes genetic...

TOMRA launches its newest peeling solution for seasonal vegetables and fruit processors

TOMRA launches its newest peeling solution for seasonal...

  TOMRA Sorting Food will reveal the latest addition to its steam peeling portfolio at Anuga FoodTec, ...

Loma launches its new X-ray contaminant inspection machine

Loma launches its new X-ray contaminant inspection mach...

  The equipment manufacturer Loma Systems launched its new X-ray contaminant inspection machine, a mod...

Key Technology expands global customer service and support

Key Technology expands global customer service and supp...

  Key Technology announces the expansion of its global customer service and support, helping food proc...

Potatoes are back on WIC, a nutritional program for women, infants and children in USA

Potatoes are back on...

The National Potato Council (NPC) from USA succeeded to put ...

Exclusive interview with the director of Urschel Laboratories, Inc: The Urschel team is a very strong one

Exclusive interview ...

What began with one man's invention more than 100 years ago ...

Important investment in Lamb Weston frozen food facility in Netherlands will add capacity and jobs

Important investment...

Lamb Weston / Meijer, a joint venture between US-based ConAg...

Thanksgiving Feast, a new line of kettle-cooked potato chips

Thanksgiving Feast, ...

Boulder Canyon Foods introduces Thanksgiving Feast, a new ...

Potato Week 2014 to take place on October 6-12

Potato Week 2014 to ...

The dates for Potato Week 2014 are October 6-12 and the camp...

Indian Government will procure 6,600 tones of potato from farmers

Indian Government wi...

The State Government announced its decision to procure 6,6...

Company launches a new solution for potato sprouting

Company launches a n...

  BioSafe Systems announces the introduction of ARRET Spr...

Seed Industry Event conference tackles key industry concerns

Seed Industry Event ...

The recent Seed Industry Event, organized by British Potato ...

Armenia registered an important growth in potato exports in 2014

Armenia registered a...

Armenian potato exports totaled about 20,600 tons, compared ...

McDonald’s does not plan to use J.R. Simplot's GMO potatoes

McDonald’s does not ...

A huge debate is happening these days in the USA involving...

The perfect blend of foam and defoamer is essential in potato processing as Andre Erasmus finds with the help of Emerald Foam Control's Frank Magazine.

Foam is all around us - it can be in a bubble bath or the head of your freshly poured beer where it is fun; or it can be useful in mineral processing, waste water treatment, fire prevention or food processing. But it can also be a nuisance and, for effective potato processing, foam control is vital.

 

Foams consists of a matrix of lamellas which are gases encapsulated with different forms of liquids. Their formation depends on the presence of surfactants, which are by definition, located at the liquid surfaces. 

The term ‘surfactant' is a blend of ‘surface acting agent' and was coined in 1950. Surfactants reduce the surface tension of water by adsorbing at the liquid interface. Adsorption is a process that occurs when a gas or liquid accumulates on the surface of a solid or a liquid (adsorbent), forming a film of molecules or atoms. It is different from absorption, in which a substance diffuses into a liquid or solid to form a solution.

If air is introduced into a liquid containing a surfactant, thereby agitating it, the surfactant molecules form a double layer around the gas forming a bubble. Repeating this process results the formation of a matrix of lamellas which produce foam.
Foam is stable if the energy of the system is low and the forces within the foam are in equilibrium. Spherical lamellae are not stable because of their high liquid content. Surface tension and other mechanical stresses therefore cause spherical lamellae to link together so that they share surfaces, and the result is a ‘polyhedral' foam that is more stable.

Total equilibrium is energetically impossible, however, so even polyhedral foam will sooner or later self-destruct. The collapse of foam has three stages: drainage of liquid from between the lamellae, rupture of the lamellae, and the diffusion of gas out of the foam cells.

Foam in food

Foam is generated in many commercial processes. Some of the more common processes are: food processing, chemical manufacturing, fermentation, textile, adhesive manufacturing, printing inks, paints, coating and resins and wastewater management. If it were not for a defoamer the processing of many of the products we depend upon today would be difficult to impossible of the quality of products would be poor.

Defoamers are used to either control foam formation or eliminate foam from forming during the manufacturing process.
When the formation of foam is prevented, the chemical is usually referred to as antifoam. When foam is already present and the product is added to destroy foam, this is a defoamer application.

Foam can be generated by either mechanical agitation or through a chemically influenced mechanism, such as fermentation process, for example.

Defoamers are manufactured and engineered to work in specific environments. Environments in which defoamers are expected to work could include ranges of temperature, pH, pressure or chemical constituent's compatibility. Defoamers may even be required to meet certain regulations such as The Food and Drug Administration Code of Federal Regulations, HACCP, cGMP, EPA, National Science Foundation, Halal, Kosher or Kosher for Passover Certification, or just be used for industrial applications meeting local, state, and federal guidelines. Depending on each state or country, the laws are specific and govern the defoamer's selection and application.

Under control

Turning to potato processing specifically, it is essential that foam formation is controlled.

As Frank Magazine, business director for Emerald Foam Control points out, there needs to be the perfect blend of foam and defoamer to make the processing of potato products work efficiently and economically . "It's all about control," he said. "Foam in potato processing is caused by starch and biological components which are particularly challenging."

Selection criteria for foam control include:
Effectiveness - it must control foam in the process and in some cases the end-use;
Compatibility - must not impact on the finished product's appearance;
Persistence - must work throughout the processing steps and time period as well as possibly over the shelf life of the finished product; and
Efficiency - must work at a low dosage.

Magazine points out that, in potato processing, the application can be either a defoaming ore anti-foaming product. This is based on the application feedpoint in the system. The vital point is that the product destroys the foam build up (knock down) for an extended period (hold down).

"A defoamer produces a mechanism which causes the collapse of foam, said Magazine.
"It causes spreading, drainage, thinning and then rupture of the lamellae.
"A careful marriage of foam with foam control is what works, there needs to be a balance between insolubility and dispersability with each formulary ingredient providing a specific function."
So the marriage needs to have that perfect chemistry.
Some of the main components of a defoamer's chemistry are its liquid phase, emulsifier, spreading agent and its hydrophobic particle.

The liquid vehicle - oil (vegetable or mineral), water, polyol (alcohol based) or an ester (chemical based) - must have a degree of incompatibility with the media it has to work in and also needs a rapid spreading coefficient to roll back water from hydrophilic surfaces.

The spreading agent (usually esters, oils or wetting agents) has the job of spreading the defoamer and giving it the ability to enter the specific make up of bubbles it will encounter.

The hydrophobic particle (silica or waxes) must fill gaps and prevent foam from reforming. The particles need to rest at a specific contact angle in the foam matrix and must be of the correct size and shape to allow the defoamer to work effectively.

Defoaming challenge

Application points for defoaming can vary in a typical potato processing line but they will be useful from the rock/stone catch to the flume system and steam or abrasive peeling applications through to hydro transport, wash tanks, starch recovery and wastewater treatment.

So defoaming in the potato processing industry is a challenge, says Magazine. There are also regulatory requirements in terms of food safety and ingredients which have to be met and processing aids, like defoamers, need to be considered.
But is it a processing aid or a food additive?

In most cases, it is a processing aid but closer consideration to residual in the final product may need to be defined to determine the possible status as a Food Additive.

This status is also based on intended affect on the antifoam in the final product - if any - as well as residual in the secondary animal and pet food streams from the process.

This topic continues to be a growing discussion point by consumers and government agencies globally, and its use is to control foam formation while conserving and re-using water.

The more water is re-used, it should follow that the more defoaming agents will be needed as impurities concentrate .
But the good news for users of EFC defoamers, concludes Magazine, is that through proper analysis of the application and the proper selection of the antifoam or defoamer, they can reduce water usage while also lowering defoamer costs and usage while giving an improved product quality.

Reduced waste water treatment costs and increased starch available for recovery along with the correct food safety requirements and certification complete the advantages.

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